Rakhigarhi (Inde): The lost world of Hisar’s Mohenjo-daro


Antiquities unearthed in Rakhigarhi village

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  • Figurines: Of animals and mythical characters and made of terracotta, these give a peak into the toy culture. A dog with a leash, an elephant calf, a four-horn deer, bulls, buffalo, unicorn, mini wheels, miniature lids and sling balls have been found, says Prof Nilesh Jadhav, co-director of the excavation by Deccan College, Pune.

  • Tools: Net sinker for fishing, copper arrow for hunting, sharp chert blades and bone sticks are among the finds.

  • Beads: Harappan women adorned themselves with articles made of lapis lazuli and carnelian; shell bangles; beads of ivory and jasper; and pendants made of basal and agate. They brought lapis lazuli from Afghanistan; carnelian beads and shell bangles from coastal areas; chert blades from Rohri in Pakistan; and sandstones from Rajasthan. 

  • Skilled craftsmen: They knew how to polish beads to a high mirror shine and drill holes. Bead-makers were experts in etching, engraving and inlaying.

  • Manufacturing units: Having thousands of bead rough-outs, waste flakes and cores, tools, implants and bead polishers have also been found. Over 11,000 beads were found in 1997 from Rakhigarhi.

Refined pottery

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  • Earthen pots: Complete sets of fired earthen pots, both hand and wheel-made, have been found from the graves, indicating that the Harappans believed in rebirth

  • Terracotta cakes: These, says research scholar Malavika Chatterjee, are triangular and circular, to be used as tiles and for heating purposes

  • Mud-brick: Occupants lived in mud-brick houses and used fired bricks in foundation and drainage