Logar (Afghanistan): Ainak Copper Mine
The Ainak copper mine area is one of the important and valuable ancient sites from the perspective of succession of time and rich ancient relics and civilizations of Koshanid, Koshano-Samanid, Koshani-Yaftali until the 4th century and Kidaro-Yaftali kings, Hindu Shahan and Turkey Shahan until the 7th century.
During the 7th and late first half of 8th century, following arrival of Islamic troops, the activities of non-Islamic ideas which were demonstrated in the structures, architectures and different aspects of life of those eras, were stagnated and stopped. There are many similarities between Ainak copper mine area Kharwar and Tapa Khandar areas from the viewpoint of art of architecture and fine arts. During the ancient ages, it was the biggest sources of copper melting for manufacturing of copper coins of Koshanid, Kidaro Yaftali, Hindu and Turki Shahan rulers.
As a result of researches took place in 1976-1977 AD, tunnels with 25 meter length and 8 meters height, metals melting ovens, which were unique qualitatively and quantitatively in central Asia were discovered.
Copper sweepings, destroyed remnants of copper melting ovens and copper production machines show the skill of residents and coiners and minters of this area.
Locals present particular interpretations for the word of Ainak as it means a circular or round or bowl shaped place as well as it means source or treasure. From the perspective of philology and origin of this word, Ainak means a small piece of iron and this area was called as Ainak copper mine which covers an area of twelve square kilometers and includes seven ancient and historical sites and their most important site is known as Qala Gul Hamid located at 34° 15’ 98.2" northern latitude and 69° 18’ 102" eastern longitude with a height of 2362 meter from the see level. Simultaneous to this, there is another rectangular ancient site called Tepa Kafer or Qala Wali located approximately 900 meter northeast of Qala Gul Hamid, is shape with 30 meter height from the ground surface, situated among agricultural fields.
As a result of archeological researches of Afghanistan experts, it was cleared that the profound impacts of Buddha ideas and teaching of Jahaiani School in the way of Sarvasti vada, architectural and decoration art with a mixture of architectural rules and peculiarities of Indo-Greek fine arts which is known as Koshanides Arts existed from seventh to early 9th century. From the point of view of system of temples construction, protective walls, pottery dishes and forms of F1-F2 Jars, it has direct relation with early days of Koshanides rule, mid eras of Yasudeva-I. As a result of excavations in Ainak copper site, not only sculptures and different golden coins of Koshano-Sansani-Yafali and a large quantity of coins of Koshands era coins of the Vasudeva-I similar to Hadah and Shotor Tapa discovered. The role of rulers and leaderships of Kidaro- Yaftali and later Turkish kings are outstanding on external surface of earthenware dishes of F3 Jars and Lyktus structures.
The pictures of Pornagata, small F3 jars with and without handle could be seen the earthenware relics that on their external surface belong to 5th and 6th AD centuries which were also discovered from Tapa Maranjan excavations which indicate Indian culture probably belonged to Hindu Shahan rule in this area, including Logar.