28 MARS 2023 NEWS
INSTITUT SUPERIEUR D'ANTHROPOLOGIE
INSTITUTE OF ANTHROPOLOGY
ONLINE COURSES / COURS A DISTANCE
DEBUT COURS : AVRIL 2023
EGYPTE – Abydos - Plus de 2.000 têtes de béliers momifiées datant de l'ère ptolémaïque ont été découvertes dans le temple de Ramsès II, dans la cité antique d'Abydos, dans le sud de l'Egypte, ont annoncé dimanche les autorités. Des momies de brebis, de chiens, de chèvres, de vaches, de gazelle et de mangoustes ont été également exhumées par une équipe d'archéologues américains de l'Université de New York sur ce site célèbre pour ses temples et ses nécropoles, a annoncé le ministère des Antiquités et du Tourisme dans un communiqué. Selon le directeur du Conseil suprême des Antiquités, Mostafa Waziri, ces découvertes vont permettre d'en savoir plus sur le temple de Ramsès II et les activités qui s'y déroulaient entre sa construction sous la sixième dynastie de l'Ancien Empire (entre 2.374 et 2.140 av. J.-C.) et la période ptolémaïque (323 à 30 avant J.-C.). Pour le professeur Sameh Iskandar, à la tête de la mission américaine et cité dans le même communiqué, ces têtes de béliers sont "des offrandes", indiquant "un culte à Ramsès II célébré 1.000 ans après sa mort". Outre les restes d'animaux momifiés, l'équipe a découvert les restes d'un palais aux murs d'environ cinq mètres d'épaisseur datant de la sixième dynastie, ainsi que plusieurs statues, des papyrus, des restes d'arbres anciens, des vêtements en cuir et des chaussures.
ESPAGNE – Valencina de la Concepción - Rock crystal appears relatively frequently in Late Prehistoric Iberian sites, especially in the form of micro-blades and knapping debris. With some exceptions, however, these finds have seldom been looked into in any detail, and therefore little is known about the technology involved in the use of this material, its social and economic relevance or its symbolic significance. In this paper we examine a collection of rock crystal artefacts recently found at Valencina de la Concepción (Seville, Spain), one of the largest 3rd millennium BC sites in Western Europe. Among the objects included in this study are a long dagger blade, twenty-five arrowheads and a core, all of which form the most technically sophisticated and esthetically impressive collection of rock crystal material culture ever found in Prehistoric Iberia. Through the analysis of the procedures and techniques applied in the production of these objects, the chemical characterisation of the raw materials through Raman spectroscopy and RTI image processing and the careful assessment of the archaeological contexts in which they were found, this paper makes a robust contribution towards the study of the role of rock crystal in Copper Age technology and society. Recent research suggest that Valencina was a major node in the circulation of exotic materials such as ivory, amber, cinnabar or flint in Copper Age Iberia, which provides a very good background to assess the relevance of rock crystal as a traded commodity. In addition we discuss the role of rock crystal as a marker of status in large megalithic monuments, as well as its possible symbolic connotations.
ARMENIE – Metsamor - Archaeologists has discovered a “golden tomb” containing two skeletons in Metsamor, Armenia. The team discovered the remains of three gold necklaces while excavating the grave of two people, most likely a couple (a man and a woman). The tomb dates back to Ramesses II’s rule over Egypt. Metsamor is one of the most studied archaeological monuments of V-I century BC in the Armenian Highland, and throughout the Ancient Near East. It includes the Bronze-Iron Age settlement (citadel, city districts, and celestial observation platform) as well as the cemetery. The land area exceeds 200 hectares. The site is located in the Ararat plain, about 35 kilometers west of Yerevan, in the Taronik administrative district. The ancient site of Metsamor is the place where the oldest known gold jewelry in the territory of Armenia was found. Discovery was a cist grave, meaning that the two skeletons were found in chambers dug in the ground and lined with large stones. Researchers also found the remains of a wooden burial bed. The bones, according to archaeologists, were well preserved. Both skeletons had slightly crouched legs. According to preliminary estimates, the couple died between the ages of 30 and 40. Professor Krzysztof Jakubiak believes that this is a unique find because the very richly equipped grave has not been robbed. Archaeologists discovered over a hundred beads and gold pendants inside the tomb. Some of them look like Celtic crosses. There were also a large number of carnelian pendants. “All these elements probably made up three necklaces,” said Professor Jakubiak. A dozen or so complete ceramic vessels and a unique faience flask were also found in the grave. The flask had not been made in the area. It was brought from the Syrian-Mesopotamian borderland, according to the researchers. Archaeologists do not know who lived in Metsamor at that time (in the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE). The people who inhabited the large, fortified settlement there were not literate, so they left no texts. This makes identifying them difficult for scientists. Jakubiak said: “But it was a very large settlement. Even fortifications made of huge stone blocks have survived to our times, encircling the so-called citadel on the hill. At the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, there was no other settlement in the region that could be compared in terms of importance and size.”
CROATIE – Split - A couple of archaeologists from the UK are set to embark on a ‘first-of-its-kind’ mission to map underwater ancient landscapes lost to the oceans thousands of years ago. The sunken landscapes will give them clues into the lives of humans who lived there between 10,000 and 24,000 years ago, during the late Paleolithic period. Dr Simon Fitch and Professor Richard Bates are the two who will set forth to Split in Croatia to begin the five-day long survey. Dr Fitch said: ‘This is the first time anyone is going more than 500 metres from the coastline in the Adriatic to map the seabed. ‘We know humans once lived on the land down there because trawlers regularly dredge up artefacts.‘This is about finding out who we are as a species and where we come from.’ He said the sea levels were up to 100 metres lower during the period compared with the present day. ‘We have an incomplete picture of human history,’ Dr Fitch went on. ‘If we go back in time to the period known as the late Paleolithic – so, between 10,000 and 24,000 years ago – that is when we had the last ‘glacial maximum’.‘It means a lot more land was exposed and people would have lived there.’ Dr Fitch added: ‘We know most human populations like to live on the coastline, so it’s likely there were settlements on what is now the seabed. ‘Our aim is to find evidence of those settlements and then recover the archaeology.’ His work is the first in a series of expeditions expected to take place over the next five years.
ITALIE – Torreano - A mysterious structure of unknown purpose has been unearthed in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region in northeastern Italy. The discovery was made during excavations for the fiber optic installation in the town of Torreano, near Udine. The ancient structure is made of heavy stone slabs that form a rectangle — two long walls and a short back topped by a “roof.” Archaeologists initially thought it was a burial cist, but an excavation of the structure revealed no evidence of human remains. It only has silty, muddy soil typical of waterways. Dorbolo said in a statement that the most plausible hypothesis at the moment is that it was a causeway, built to allow carts to pass through an ancient water course that flowed through the structure. Another option is a culvert or drainpipe, but rough-hewn, heavy stone slabs are not the best choice for that purpose. Given the weight and size of the stones, it is likely that this was not a quick structure built by a local farmer but rather a significant infrastructure project requiring financial and human investment. This discovery contains no stratigraphic data, and it would be nearly impossible to date a collection of heavy stone slabs in the absence of associated artifacts or remains suitable for radiocarbon or dendrochronological analysis. In conclusion, we have no idea what it is or how old it is.
ECOSSE – Glen Affric - A piece of fabric found in a peat bog in the Scottish Highlands is thought to be the oldest traditional tartan ever found. Researchers say the delicate material could be up to 500 years old. The piece of fabric was unearthed in Glen Affric around 40 years ago and was naturally preserved in the peat due to the lack of air getting to it. After being carefully examined, washed and tested, the team of scientists from National Museums Scotland said it had initially been made up of four colours: green and brown and possibly red and yellow. They found no evidence of man-made dyes in the tartan, suggesting the fabric was older than they initially thought. "It is likely to date to the reign of James V, Mary Queen of Scots, or James VI", who was also known as James I of England. Tartan is a special type of checked woollen fabric with great historic importance to Scotland - the first mention of tartan was in 1538. It is made up of horizontal and vertical stripes in different colours, on a coloured background. The interwoven stripes are known as a sett. Tartan can be used to make kilts, or scarves, and they come in many different colours and designs, to represent different clans, or families. Originally, clanspeople used local plants, mosses and berries to dye the wool.
ECOSSE – Glasgow - After digging deep, a stunning new find has been discovered by volunteers and Glasgow University's archaeology department, as they reveal an early modern tombstone found in the graveyard of Glasgow church. Govan Old Church holds a unique collection which dates back as far as the ninth century, to commemorate the power of those who ruled the Kingdom of Strathclyde. An early modern day tombstone from the 17th or 18th century has been found deep under the ground at Govan Old Parish Church.
ANGLETERRE – Norfolk. - A curator has praised a metal detectorist and landowner for giving an "incredibly mysterious" Bronze Age gold penannular ring to a museum. The 14.5mm (0.5in) ring has been declared treasure by a coroner. The penannular ring - which means it has a small part of its circumference missing - was found in north Norfolk.
INDE – Vaigai - The three-layered, baked ring well adds another interesting find in the area. The well was discovered at the banks of Vaigai in a town situated in its neighborhood a few days back.