20 JUILLET 2023 NEWS
INSTITUT SUPERIEUR D'ANTHROPOLOGIE
INSTITUTE OF ANTHROPOLOGY
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DEBUT COURS : SEPTEMBRE 2023
USA – Bluegrass - A trove of more than 700 gold coins dating back to the US Civil War found buried in a cornfield in the state of Kentucky is being put up for sale and is expected to reap millions. The "Great Kentucky Hoard" was discovered on a farm in the Bluegrass State earlier this year, according to the firm which graded the coins and the company selling them. GovMint.com said the coins were dated between 1840 and 1863 and include $1 Gold Indians, $10 Gold Libertys and $20 Gold Libertys. Among them are 18 extremely rare $20 Gold Libertys minted in 1863 in Philadelphia which GovMint.com said fetch six-figure sums from collectors. "The stunning number of over 700 gold dollars represents a virtual time capsule of Civil War-era coinage," Garrett said in a statement. Kentucky adopted a neutral stance during the 1861-1865 Civil War between the slave-holding South and the North but was nevertheless drawn into the bloody conflict.
BRESIL – Santa Elina - Archaeologists discovered three pendants made from the bony material of an extinct giant sloth in a rock shelter in central Brazil. The pendants are believed to be between 25,000 and 27,000 years old, making them the oldest known personal ornaments in the Americas and the only ones made from giant sloth bone in the archaeological record. New research suggests humans lived in South America at the same time as now-extinct giant sloths, bolstering evidence that people arrived in the Americas earlier than once thought. The ornaments were found about 30 years ago at a rock shelter in central Brazil called Santa Elina. The new study is the first to analyze them extensively and rule out the possibility that humans had found and carved them thousands of years after the animals perished. The pendants were among thousands of osteoderms — hard bony deposits that form within the skin of certain animals —. The osteoderms belonged to a species of giant sloth known as Glossotherium phoenesis, which weighed around 600 kilograms (1,323 pounds) and had long clawed arms for digging. To ascertain how the pendants were created and altered by human hands, the researchers who discovered them analyzed them using a variety of methods and experiments. They found that the osteoderms were polished and had holes drilled into them, suggesting they were used for personal adornment, probably as necklaces or earrings. The holes were not caused by natural abrasion or predation, according to the study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The team of researchers from Brazil, France, and the United States said their analysis shows this handiwork was done within days to a few years after the animals had died, and before the materials had fossilized. The researchers also ruled out natural abrasion and other things that might explain the shapes and holes.
PALESTINE – Gaza - A Roman-era lead sarcophagus was uncovered in the Gaza Strip on Sunday, the second such discovery this year. "A second lead sarcophagus was found during excavation works in a cemetery north of Gaza,” Jamal Abu Raida of the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Gaza told Anadolu. "The sarcophagus belongs to dignitaries in the Roman era,” he added.
ANGLETERRE – Caxton Gibbet. - Headless animals, possible vineyards and a stylus are among the finds unearthed by archaeologists working on National Highways’ scheme to dual the A428 from the Black Cat roundabout to Caxton Gibbet. Archaeologists from the Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA) have been working since 2021 to build a detailed picture of what life was like in Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire during the Iron Age (800 BC–AD 43) and Roman period (AD 43–410). They are investigating a vast area of land, the equivalent to 89 full-sized football pitches, making it one of the largest digs ever undertaken in the region. New discoveries continue to be made both in the field and the lab, providing clues about the lives of past inhabitants. In the lab, environmental evidence is revealing luxuries were enjoyed by local people. Archaeologists may even have found grape pollen in cores taken from waterlogged soil, suggesting vineyards were grown in this area during the Roman period. Experts have also been able to identify examples of Roman influence in the region. Artefacts recovered during excavations show how new goods were imported through the Roman trade network. Amphora—a type of ancient storage jar—may have brought olive oil to Cambridgeshire from Spain, and expensive dinnerware, named Samian ware, came from Northern France. Remains of animals, including sheep and pigs, reveal much about people’s diets through history. Sometimes the way these remains were disposed of contain further clues, such as the mixture of bones and pottery dumped in two separate pits in different settlements – possible evidence of ancient feasts. There have also been some surprises along the way, particularly in the form of a stylus.The Romans would have used it to write on their waxed tablets, just like modern day digital tablets. Styli (or styluses) were formed with a pointed end to write on the wax, and a trapezoidal one to erase the written words by smoothing the waxed surface flat again. Until recently, the only objects known from this area dating before the Iron Age were stone arrowheads, suggesting small hunting groups roamed Cambridgeshire over 3,000 years ago. Timeline of the site: Neolithic (c. 4000–2200 BC) or earlier: the discovery of stone tools suggest people were in the area - 800 BC: Start of the Iron Age- 400–100 BC: Settlements start to appear during the Middle Iron Age- AD 43: Romans arrive in Britain. While settlements continue to develop in the same area, new traded goods and technologies appear.- AD 410: End of the Roman rule of Britain. By this time, some settlements are no longer inhabited.- AD 650: All the settlements that have been excavated so far have been abandoned by this time.
INDE – Thoppur - A team of historians from Thonmam Historical Research Foundation has discovered earthen pots, grindstone and identified a burial site, believed to be of iron age (7 BCE and 14 BCE) near the Thoppur railway station recently. Dr C Chandrasekar said, “We found some cairns and menhir which was a site where ancient people had used to bury the dead. Further scouting a 2 km area we found red and black earthenware in the surrounding. We also found a tool, a grindstone used for grinding earthenware. We believe this could have been a settlement site as we have also found small ball shaped stone carving which could have been used for children to play games.”
SUEDE – Jämtland, - The story began when mountain climber Eskil Nyström came across an extraordinary 1,200-year-old brooch. At the site in Jämtland, Anders Hansson, chief archaeologist at Jamtli, also found another oval brooch which is not much of a surprise because such pins are usually unearthed in pairs. "What has been established is that it is a cremation grave from the Viking Age and "most likely" a woman's grave, Hansson says. Previously, only five other Viking graves have been found in the mountains, and all have belonged to men. Scientists have now excavated the Viking grave and have more information about this fascinating archaeological discovery. "It's an incredible archeological discovery," Hansson told Swedish Radio (SR). A female Viking burial site up in the mountains is a rare find. Never before has this type of burial been encountered in the Jämtland mountain world. "We have found five graves before, but they are typical male graves with arrowheads and swords," he says. The grave is important as it can shed new light on how people lived in this area 1,000 years ago. Archaeologists know farmers and Sami people occupied this region at the time, but every archaeological find pains a more accurate picture of the past. Scientists would like to gain more historical information on how people communicated and co-existed with each other in those days. Excavations of the Viking grave show the Viking woman had been cremated. So little remains of her bones that scientists cannot conduct a DNA examination. The gender of the deceased has been determined with the help of the uncovered artifacts, which include jewelry, brooches, pearls, and a ring. The high quality of these burial items indicates this is the resting place of a wealthy Viking woman. She was an individual who held a high social status. Archaeologists say she was also buried with a giant "brutal" axe. This kind of weapon is typical for the Viking Age and at least 1,000 years. The Viking axe is so well-preserved it is still sharp and could be used.
INDE – Gengavaram - A 13th-century fort, believed to be belonging to the Kadavaraya dynasty that flourished in the Chola period, was recently discovered by a team of archaeologists, history students, and researchers at Gengavaram village near Gingee. The fort's primary entrance is on the east side, while most steps on the west side have been damaged. To enhance security, a wall has been constructed on one side, while an exit can be found on the southwest side. The fort was primarily constructed with bricks, soil, and lime.Ramesh explained, "We discovered traces of small rooms. An oil well was found, covered by a structure shaped like a bat's forehead, and two square-shaped cavities that were used likely for storing oil." The team also discovered five inscriptions at the fort. One was discovered on the embankment at the heart of the hill. According to the inscription, the lake was once known as Avani Alapirandavan, which Ramesh confirmed to be another name for King Koperum Singan of the Kadavaraya dynasty. Springs associated with Kachiperumal, Mannar Makkal Nayagan, a Shivalinga engraved in a rock, two mortar pits were also uncovered. Ramesh continued, "These pieces of evidence strongly indicate that this fort belonged to the Kadavarayars, a small kingdom that flourished in Nadunadu under the Chola dynasty during the 13th century. These rulers initially governed from Kodalur (Cuddalore) before relocating their capital to Senthamangalam near Ulundurpet. They considered themselves the descendants of the Pallava dynasty. It was also revealed that the fort was utilised during the Vijayanagar Nayakar period after the decline of the Kadavarayars."
JAPON – - A recent shipwreck was found off the coast of Japan this year and identified as part of a Mongol fleet that sailed to Japan in the latter part of the 13th Century. In 1274 and 1281, Kublai Khan, the then-Mongol leader, dispatched two military expeditions to Japan. In Japan, these are known as the “Mongol Invasions.” The Mongol army sailed to Japan in 1281 with up to 4,000 ships and 140,000 soldiers, making it the largest sea invasion force assembled until Operation Overlord 670 years later. After the weather turned against them, it is said that a portion of Kublai Khan’s second armada sought refuge in Imari Bay, hoping to ride out the storm there. Instead of being saved, the ships met with disaster. Today, the area in Imari Bay where artifacts from these ships are being uncovered has been designated as an underwater cultural historical site. Known as the Takashima Kozaki, due to its proximity to Takashima (Taka Island), it was the first underwater area in Japan to receive this designation.