ROYAUME UNI - Carlisle - Les Ecossais peuvent être fiers. Selon des recherches récentes, ils ont désormais le droit de réclamer la paternité de l’invention du football, jusque-là détenue par le voisin et rival anglais. En effet, une forme codifiée de football était déjà pratiquée par les aristocrates en Ecosse dès le XVe siècle, selon des recherches menées par le Musée du football écossais et rapportées mardi par le quotidien anglais The Times. Les chercheurs de cette institution de Glasgow ont découvert en mettant à jour leurs archives des documents qui montrent que des versions élaborées du football, dotées de règles précises, existaient il y a plusieurs siècles. Dans une lettre de 1568, un match disputé au château de Carlisle par vingt joueurs en présence de la reine Marie Stuart est ainsi décrit comme "épargné par les fautes". Un autre document trouvé dans les archives du grand trésorier du royaume mentionne l’achat d’un sac de "fut ballis" par le roi Jacques IV en 1497. On considérait jusqu’à présent que les formes primitives du football, avant sa codification en Angleterre au milieu du XIXe siècle, se limitaient à des combats brutaux et plus ou moins anarchiques autour d’une balle entre des joueurs très nombreux. . "Nous avons trouvé des fragments d’information qui montrent que l’évolution du football a eu lieu pendant des siècles", a déclaré le curateur du musée, Richard McBrearty. 


IRLANDE – Newgrange - Archaeologists are examining whether one of the country’s most popular tourist attractions may have more to it than meets the eye. Newgrange in Co Meath may have a second passage, and it too could be aligned with a solstice event. Teams from Ireland and Slovakia are exploring the possibility -- using technology that has proven successful at the pyramids in Egypt. "The absolute best-case scenario would be to demonstrate there is an undiscovered passage and chamber within Newgrange because the mound has not been fully excavated," said Dr Conor Brady, archaeologist with Dundalk Institute of Technology. The northwest side of the mound has never been excavated, he said, so "it is technically possible there is something there". Newgrange is synonymous with sunrise on the winter solstice and light entering the chamber. The neighbouring mounds at Knowth and Dowth both have two passages.


CHINE - Badain Jaran Desert - Archeologists have discovered 10 sites of ancient civilization in the Badain Jaran Desert, China’s third largest desert located in northern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. An archeological team composed of 11 experts from Inner Mongolia, Beijing and Sichuan have unearthed large quantities of stone and pottery handicrafts dating back 5,000 years from the sites, which, the experts believe, indicate civilization once flourished in the desert. Experts say one of the most distinguished findings was a black-red painted pottery jar, which represents Neolithic art that dates back 4,500 years. It was unearthed from a site where archeologists have discovered civilization ruins in an area of 15,000 square meters. The experts said stone wares made of flint and agate were found in all 10 sites. The Badian Jaran Desert is 47,000 square km and sparsely populated. It is famous for having the tallest stationary sand dunes in the world. Some dunes reach a height of 500 meters. But it also features spring-fed lakes that lie between the dunes. Archeologists said all the relic sites are near such lakes.


INDE20bgaruni-3nhtb-812951e.jpg  Bellanduru - The little village of Bellanduru, around which the suburb has grown, has a history that dates back 2,500 years. One of the annual reports of the Archaeological Survey of Mysore State talks of ancient Iron Age tombs discovered on the lake bund.  These tombs can no longer be found intact, claimed as they are by urbanisation. However, these burials — made of rough and irregular granite slabs of various sizes and containing large-size urns, human skeletons and small and pottery utensils — were first surveyed and excavated by Bush, a British engineer from Calcutta. Out of curiosity, when Bush opened four tombs in the 1910s, he found several iron objects, including an iron sandal, dagger, needles, human skeletons and pottery. When in 1915 the Mysore State Archaeology Department opened the other tomb, they found similar objects in it. Much like the Pyramids in Egypt, these Iron Age (or Megalithic) tombs were large graves made of boulders or slabs, with utensils and other goods placed next to the deceased. Megalithic tombs have been found in large numbers especially in south India. The Bellanduru Megalithic culture tombs are part of the Pennar river culture. Similar Megalithic tombs in Bangalore region are found at Chikkajala, Jadigenahalli, Maragondanahalli, and other places. These settlements indicate the early human settlements in Bangalore region. Another discovery, not too long ago, proved trade links between the Roman Empire and Bellandur.  In 1965, as many as 256 Roman coins were discovered from HAL Airport close to Bellandur. These Roman coins belong to Roman kings Augustus and Tiberius who ruled in 100 AD.


ROYAUME UNI 1586136031.jpg  Ardnamurchan - The first fully intact Viking boat burial site ever uncovered on the UK mainland has been found on the Ardnamurchan peninsula in Lochaber. The 16ft-long grave contained the remains of a “high-status Viking” who was buried with an axe, a sword and a spear. Archaeologists say the find is hugely significant and will lead to an improved understanding of how the Vikings came to Scotland. Archaeologists will use teeth from the body, which is thought to date from the tenth century, to determine exactly where the man came from and what he ate. Two hundred rivets that would once have held together the now long-decomposed boat will help understand how the craft was built. It is also thought the Viking was widely travelled, as he was discovered with a whetstone from Norway, a ring pin from Ireland and pottery from the Hebrides. The first Viking raids in Scotland took place in the late eighth century, and the Norsemen settled in Orkney and Shetland by the middle of the ninth century. While graves have been uncovered on Scottish islands, this is the first boat burial ever unearthed on the British mainland.