17 OCTOBRE 2018: Fourni - Egolzwil - Bergsstadir - Uppsala -
INSTITUT SUPERIEUR D'ANTHROPOLOGIE
INSTITUTE OF ANTHROPOLOGY
ONLINE COURSES / COURS A DISTANCE
FALL TERM : OCTOBER 2018
GRECE – Fourni - A Greek-U.S. team of marine archaeologists has located three more ancient shipwrecks with pottery cargoes, including 1,900-year-old branded designer lamps, and two from much later times in a rich graveyard of ships in the eastern Aegean Sea, a project official said Tuesday. All were found last month off Fourni island and its surrounding islets that lie at the junction of two main ancient shipping routes, in notoriously treacherous waters between the larger islands of Ikaria and Samos. The older wrecks date to the 4th and 2nd centuries B.C. and the 5th-6th centuries A.D., while the more recent ones are from the 18th or 19th century, said archaeologist George Koutsouflakis, joint leader of the project. He said they were discovered at depths of 10-40 meters (33-130 feet). Because that is relatively shallow, the wrecks bore traces of looting by illegal antiquities hunters or of damage by fishing nets. The five new finds, all trading ships, raise to 58 the total number of ancient, mediaeval and more recent wrecks located since 2015 around the lobster-shaped Fourni complex. Two of its 13 islets bear the ominous name Anthropofas, or Man-eater, in reference to the seamen who drowned off them. The project started in 2015, in cooperation with the U.S.-based RPM Nautical Foundation, a non-profit organization involved in several Mediterranean underwater projects. Archaeologists received significant help from local fishermen, who provided information on wreck sites. Apart from the cargoes of amphorae — jars that contained wine, oil and foodstuffs — found in September, divers also recovered a group of 2nd-century A.D. terracotta lamps, incised with the names of the Corinthian artisans who made them, Octavius and Lucius. They may have been slave workers who later gained their freedom and set up their own pottery workshops, a Greek Culture Ministry statement said. The project is planned to continue over the next five years, the ministry said.
SUISSE – Egolzwil - Archaeologists from canton Lucerne have uncovered rare Celtic remains on a construction site in the city of Egolzwil about 35 kilometres from the city of Lucerne. The discovery of a bronze piece of jewellery is considered a particularly exceptional finding. The fact that Celts once lived in canton Lucerne has been known since sacrificial remains were found on the site of a former lake in the area some time ago. However, this new discovery, reported on Tuesday, is the first traces of settlements that have been found to date, which archaeologists hope can shed light on the history of the Celts in the area. The excavation uncovered ceramic fragments, remains of burnt houses, and animal bones. A bronze brooch or clothes pin, believed to be a piece of jewellery used to tie clothes such as cloaks and coats, was also uncovered. Based on the findings, archaeologists believe the settlement dates back to the first century BC. The excavation was conducted as part of a planned construction of three new semi-detached houses next to the railway line in Egolzwil-Baumgarten.
ISLANDE – Bergsstadir - It might be smaller than Hollywood’s depiction of the hammer of Thor, but the unusual artifact is the first of its kind to be discovered. Archaeologists discovered the Viking Age amulet, known as "Thor’s Hammer," in southwest Iceland, at a site they believe was used as a farm by early settlers. While there have been other Thor’s Hammer amulets discovered in parts of Scandinavia, this is the first to be made of sandstone. Experts believe the symbol may come from a mix of Asatru, a pagan religion, and Christianity that was spreading to Scandinavia around the time it would have been made. Early settlers of Iceland would have lived in the area in the 9th and 10th centuries, and most likely fled the site in 1104 A.D., after Mount Helka erupted and left the land infertile. Also found at the site, now named Bergsstadir after the local that discovered it, was a portable whetstone used for sharpening needles and shards of soapstone experts believe are parts of a large pot.
SUEDE – Uppsala - A 1000-year-old runestone which could be the missing piece of an archaeological puzzle has been found in Sweden. The rock – measuring around 30 by 35 centimetres – was found during renovation work of the stone wall outside Lena Church north of Uppsala. "We found it when the wall was broken down and put back together," Robin Lucas, archaeologist at the Uppland Museum, told The Local. "It's from the classic runestone-erecting period of the 11th century." Four runes can be seen on the stone – "an ua" – but most of the inscriptions are missing from the fragment. Neither word is complete, but can potentially be read as "... he was..." or "... he has become". More than half of Sweden's runestones have been found in the Uppland region, but this particular one still stands out from the rest because it was made of limestone. "Runestones made of limestone are very rare in Uppland. Usually, granite dominates. In areas with a lot of limestone, such as Gotland and Öland, it is more common. But limestone does exist in Uppland in small pockets, so it may very well be from around here," said Lucas. Only one piece of runestone made of limestone has so far been found in the area, also at Lena Church many years ago, and archaeologists believe the two fragments are part of the same stone. The first fragment, which has been tentatively dated to the late 11th or early 12th century, reads: "... Åsbjörn and... land. May God deceive those who failed him." "That is a curious formulation," said Lucas. "Most runestones are from Christian origin, just like these ones. They usually say things like 'praise the Lord', so it is quite uncommon to use a stone like that to ask for vengeance." Combining the two fragments, the archaeologist now believes that it could have belonged to someone from the early Middle Ages, who might have been betrayed and killed abroad. A team of archaeologists will continue the search for more stones in the coming weeks to find out what happened back then. "We will be paying really close attention to other parts of the wall. Hopefully we’ll find more stones that way."