13 NOVEMBRE 2018: Pasargadae - Egypte - Vidin -
INSTITUT SUPERIEUR D'ANTHROPOLOGIE
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WINTER TERM : JANUARY 2019
IRAN – Pasargadae - The ISCR experts and Iranian technicians have worked side by side on the preservation of the Tomb of Cyrus the Great and encircling ruined palaces in Pasargadae. Situated in about 50km north of Persepolis, itself a World Heritage, Pasargadae was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who reigned mighty Persian Empire from 559 to 530 BC.
EGYPTE – - Astronomers and Egyptologists demonstrate how ancient Egyptian calendars were used to describe the behavior of astronomical observations, in particular the star system Algol. An ancient Egyptian papyrus, known as the Cairo Calendar, could be the oldest historical record of a star’s brightness, providing a new perspective on the development of the Algol triple star system over thousands of years. Known as the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days, the Cairo Calendar, dated from 1244 – 1163 BC, assigns predictions and prognoses to every day of the Egyptian year. These prognoses indicate whether the day, or part of the day, is considered “good” or “bad”. The calendar also contains information regarding the day’s astronomical observations, such as the behaviour of astronomical objects, especially Algol. Now researchers say that the astronomical symbolism discovered in the two most Ancient Egyptian myths suggest similar clues could be found in other ancient Egyptian texts. The article “Algol as Horus in the Cairo Calendar: the possible means and the motives of the observations” by Sebastian Porceddu, Lauri Jetsu, Tapio Markkanen, Joonas Lyytinen, Perttu Kajatkari, Jyri Lehtinen, and Jaana Toivari-Viitala published in De Gruyter’s journal Open Astronomy, looks at how the legends of the Egyptian deities Horus and Set were used in the calendar. The deities describe the behavior of astronomical objects, specifically, the naked eye observations of the variable three-star system Algol. However, next to nothing is known about who recorded Algol’s period into the Cairo Calendar, nor how. The authors show how the ancient Egyptian scribes present celestial phenomena as the activity of gods, which reveals why Algol received the title of Horus. The study presents ten arguments which show that the ancient Egyptian scribes, known as the “hour-watchers” had the possible means and motives to record the period of Algol in the Cairo Calendar. “The discovery of Algol’s variability would have to be dated to thousands of years earlier than has been previously known. The star would have been a part of ancient Egyptian mythology as a form of the god Horus,” said study author Sebastian Porceddu from the University of Helsinki.
BULGARIE – Vidin - Archaeologists have uncovered an 8,000-year-old figurine of a woman's upper body in a dig in northwest Bulgaria. A team of archaeologists made the discovery near a prehistoric settlement located in the Vidin District, close to the River Danube. The woman is thought to represent a fertility "mother goddess" and the sculpture, recovered from a large dugout dwelling, is believed to have been made by the region’s first agriculturalists. The finding could significantly drive back the time when hunter-gatherers in Europe eventually started farming and ended their previous nomadic ways of life, known as the Neolithic Revolution in Europe. Until now, experts believed the Neolithic era is this region of Europe was dated from late 5000-3000 BC. “This find shows that we can push back substantially the timing of the emergence of the transition from an economy of appropriation to an economy of production namely, to the 7th millennium BC [7000 through 6001 BC]," said lead archaeologist Georgi Ganetsovski. Ganetsovski, who focuses on prehistory, described the finding as being a particularly extraordinary one. "The typical stylised depictions of the eyes, the nose. What we at first thought to be some kind of decoration turned out to be [the depiction of] a veil covering the head, with ornaments along its edges," he said. The archaeology team said this discovery is part of a “mysterious civilisation” that “used forgotten techniques that we are now trying to rebuild.” "For me, this is a unique find, I hope we’ll be able to find the lower part of the Mother Goddess figurine," Ganetsovski said. The prehistoric settlement in the village of Mayor Uzunovo, where the figurine was dug up, has only been observed once before, five years ago, and this was permitted only to stop treasure hunters from raiding valuable artefacts at the site.