09 AVRIL 2018: Grèce - Hassan Noran - Koheng - Govan Old -
INSTITUT SUPERIEUR D'ANTHROPOLOGIE
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SPRING TERM : APRIL 2018
GRECE – - The very first depiction of a yo-yo is to be found on an ancient Greek vase from the 5th century BC, where a boy can be seen playing with the timeless toy. The yo-yo is the second-oldest known toy after dolls, according to historians. Its origins are placed in China, after a toy known as the diabolo. From China, the yo-yo travelled to ancient Greece and the Philippines. Through time it became popular all over the world. The yo-yo was made of wood, metal or clay. It is believed that in ancient Greek society the toy was used as an offering to the gods. Some also believe that it was used as a coming-of-age ritual for boys. The vase depicting the boy playing with the yo-yo, dated from 440 BC, is exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, along with fragments of a small clay disc, parts of the popular toy. There are images depicting the device in ancient Egypt as well, an indication that, indeed, the yo-yo was an exciting toy for young and old. It is believed that the name yo-yo has its origins in the Philippines. The word itself means “come-come” or “to return” in Filipino, describing the basic trait of the device. Filipino warriors also used it as a deadly weapon for hunting or battle, with the disc replaced by a larger, sharp stone. From Asia, the yo-yo travelled to Europe, when at the end of the 18th century it became a favorite pastime for the aristocracy. The toy was called different names, such as “L’emigrette,” “Bandalore,” and “joujou de Normandie.” Some would argue that the French word for a toy―joujou―was adopted into other western cultures as the name for the device. From France, the yo-yo travelled to England and almost a century later to the New World. In 1866, two men from Ohio offered their “improved bandalore” which was introduced in a similar manner as in Europe. In 1928, a Filipino migrant opened the first yo-yo manufacturing shop in California, and the rest is toy history.
IRAN – Hassan Noran - A historical jug — dating back to 3,200 years and belonging to Iron Age II — has been discovered in Hassan Noran Village of Oshnavieh, West Azarbaijan Province, said the head of Oshnavieh Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Department. Musa Khezri added that the buff colored jug — unearthed by local people while moving a large stone — was presented to the department by members of village’s Islamic Council. The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age. It is an archeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the old world. The Iron Age is divided into two subsections: Iron I and Iron II.
IRAN – Koheng - The discovery of remains of several rooms, the yard, and the tower are considered to be among architectural features of Koheng Tower which have been unearthed in the course of the sixth archeological explorations in Koheng, Sarbisheh, which is among major Islamic sites in east of the country. The archaeologist said that the sixth archeological exploration season has been conducted and will be continued in the site with the cooperation of 14 students of the university with an aim of identifying and understanding the architectural spaces of an establishment known as Koheng Tower in the eastern part of the site. Koheng site dates back to the third and fourth Hejira centuries up to the Safavid era and most of the things collected included pottery, brick and architectural structures relating to the middle Islamic ages, he added. Pointing to the architectural features of Koheng Castle, the archaeologist said that in the explorations conducted so far remains of several rooms and a yard and a tower have been discovered. The head of the exploration team noted that in the architecture of the tower stratum walls have been used and in order to boost its strength and resistance, the thickness of the monument walls is more on the lower part and it gets thiner as the wall goes up. Referring to the use of great pieces of andesite stones in black color in the construction of the building, which have been collected from the surrounding area, he said according to this method after a row of muddy mass applied to the wall, a row of stone would be used and then again a row of mud which not only would be beneficial in terms of rigidity of the building, but also in saving time for the construction of the wall. Farjami said that Koheng Castle is situated on the top of a hill which is higher than the surrounding area and the height of the castle would provide it with the possibility to ensure defense of the residents of the castle against invaders. He went on to say that the cultural findings mainly included pottery as well as glass pieces, broken pieces of stone dishes made of steatite and animal bone marbles, wood and metal. The existence of salt and even lime in the Koheng site soil has not only caused limitations in the field of agriculture but also due to the presence of pottery in the area, salt and lime particles have caused gradual fracture of the surface of the pottery containers and in many cases has caused porosity of the pottery pieces which has left negative impact on the metal and glass works, he noted.
ROYAUME UNI – Govan Old - All of the stones come from the churchyard of Govan Old and, as far as we know, the majority, which are the gravestones, were actually still in use until the modern period. They were recycled from generation to generation and some of them actually have inscriptions, initials and dates, which shows they were still being used in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries as gravestones for the local gentry. But the main piece of sculpture, which is the sarcophagus, was found in 1855. It was discovered during grave digging full of soil, but with no bones or human remains inside. It was a sensational discovery because it’s unique in Scotland and there is only one comparable example in Britain (Derbyshire). At this time the other stones were still outside being used, but during the 1920s they were gradually brought into the church where they were little-known outside the congregation. The sarcophagus is monolithic; it’s made out of a block of local sandstone and is covered all over with Celtic ornament. We think it was a reliquary shrine that would have once held the bones of King Constantine I, not least because the dedication of the church is to Constantine, which is quite an unusual dedication in Scotland. King Constantine I, known as ‘the martyr’, was killed in 876 fighting Vikings. His sister was married into the Strathclyde royal house and somehow the Britons of Strathclyde must have got their hands on his remains because he seems to have become a patron saint to the dynasty. The main iconography on the sarcophagus features a mounted warrior in a hunting motif. He’s on his horse, he’s got a sword, there’s a deer and what looks like a hound. It’s the kind of motif which is very common in early medieval art in Scotland, particularly amongst the Picts, and Constantine is actually the king of the Picts at the time of his death. So it looks like they’ve picked up on some motifs and represented the king as a kind of warrior in this very typical way.